Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Demeter Altemps

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Deméter tipo Madrid-Capitolio (Museo del Prado)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Déméter et Perséphone (Coré) remettant à Triptolème les grains pour apprendre l’agriculture à l’humanité, relief votif ou cultuel d’Éleusis, v. 440 av. J.-C.Musée national archéologique d’Athènes.

Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Déméter et Perséphone(Coré) remettant à Triptolèmeles grains pour apprendre l’agriculture à l’humanité, relief votif ou cultuel d’Éleusis, v. 440 av. J.-C.Musée national archéologique d’Athènes.

Dans la mythologie grecqueDéméter(en grec ancienΔημήτηρ / Dêmếtêrqui dérive de Γῆ Μήτηρ / Gễ Mếtêr, « la Terre-Mère » ou de Δημομήτηρ /Dêmomếtêr, « la Mère de la Terre », de δῆμος / dễmos, « la terre, le pays »[réf. nécessaire]) est la déesse de l’agriculture et des moissons.

La Théogonie d’Hésiode en fait une fille des TitansCronos et Rhéa, la sœur d’HestiaHéraHadèsPoséidon et Zeus, et la mère de Perséphone.

Les Romains l’assimilèrent à Cérès.

Mythe

Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Cosmè TuraAoût : Le Triomphe de Cérès, v. 14761484.

Quand Hadès, souverain des morts, enleva Perséphone pour en faire son épouse, la mère de cette dernière, Déméter, partit à sa recherche, délaissant les récoltes de la Terre. En prenant la forme d’une vieille femme nommée Doso, elle erra pendant neuf jours et neuf nuits. Se rendant compte qu’une famine menaçait les mortels, Zeus se décida à envoyer son messager Hermès au royaume d’Hadès pour lui demander de rendre Perséphone à sa mère. Mais Perséphone avait mangé six pépins de la grenade que le rusé Hadès lui avait offerte pour la garder avec lui, la tradition voulant que quiconque mange dans le royaume des morts ne peut plus le quitter. Zeus obtint que Perséphone passât l’hiver aux Enfers et le reste de l’année avec sa mère. Ainsi débuta, selon la mythologie grecque, le cycle des saisons.

Mais Déméter eut d’autres enfants que Perséphone. Le héros Iasions’unit à elle dans un champ labouré trois fois et lui donna un fils qui fut appelé Ploutos et devint la personnification de la richesse. Homèrementionne que Zeus, par jalousie, foudroya Iasion. Unie à Poséidon, Déméter conçut aussi Arion, un cheval immortel, et une déesse mystérieuse dont il était interdit de prononcer le nom, que l’on désignait sous le vocable de Despina (« la Maîtresse »)1. La légende rapporte qu’ayant conçu Despina durant sa quête de Perséphone, Déméter la fit élever par le Titan Anytos2.

Déméter enseigna aux humains les semis et le labour. Durant son errance sous la forme de Doso, elle rencontra Céléos, roi d’Éleusis. Pour le remercier de son accueil, elle prit avec elle les fils du roi, Démophon et Triptolème, tenta de rendre le premier immortel et enseigna au second l’art de l’agriculture. Celui-ci devait transmettre cet art au reste des humains. Selon certaines traditions, elle lui aurait aussi donné des grains de blé afin qu’il les répandent sur la Terre.

Pour avoir dressé des temples à son honneur, Hiérax est récompensé de grandes récoltes3.

Culte

Giacobbe Giusti, Déméter

Bacchus et Cérès, nymphes et satyres, par Sébastien Bourdon (2e moitié du xviie siècle).

Dans Les Travaux et les JoursHésiode revient fréquemment sur Déméter, et il y donne de nombreux détails sur les rites religieux entourant la fertilité et le travail de la terre. On reconnaît que cette déesse est l’une des divinités les plus favorables aux humains et qu’elle se réjouit dans la paix et le labeur. Plusieurs auteurs s’entendent pour dire qu’elle ne faisait pas partie des douze dieux de l’Olympe, puisqu’elle préfèrerait rester près de la terre et des champs. Aux mystères de Déméter, chaque initié lui sacrifiait un porc ; on célébrait les mystères de Déméter au lac de Lerne en Argolide. Selon Pausanias dans sa Description de la Grèce, une grande quantité de temples et sanctuaires dédiés à Déméter parsemaient le pays, témoignant de l’importance de son culte.

Déméter était honorée dans les mystères d’Éleusis, un culte célébrant le retour à la vie et le cycle des moissons. L’Hymne homérique à Déméter donne la meilleure description qui puisse nous documenter sur l’origine du culte.

Elle était également honorée aux mystères de Samothrace sous la forme de la déesse Axieros, la déesse principale des Grands Dieux.

Hiérax du pays des Mariandynes au Nord de L’Asie mineure, est connu pour lui avoir offert de nombreux temples et la déesse le lui remercie par de grande récoltes3.

Épiclèses, attributs et sanctuaire

Déméter dans les arts

Déméter est souvent représentée assise et avec une gerbe d’épis de blé tressés. On la voit parfois munie d’une torche, à la recherche de sa fille bien-aimée. On retrouve souvent près d’elle les produits de la terre et ses animaux sacrés, la couleuvre et la truie. Sa fille Perséphone apparaît assez souvent à ses côtés.

Littérature

Art contemporain

Sources

Notes et références

  1.  PausaniasDescription de la Grèce [détail des éditions] [lire en ligne [archive]]VIII, 25, 5.
  2.  PausaniasDescription de la Grèce [détail des éditions] [lire en ligne [archive]]VIII, 37, 1.
  3. ↑ a et b Antoninus LiberalisMétamorphoses [(grc)(la) lire en ligne [archive]] [(en) lire en ligne [archive]], 3-Hiérax.
  4.  Locatelli Kournwsky, Loïc, 1987-….Perséphone, Delcourt, dl 2017 (ISBN 9782756095516OCLC 993049027lire en ligne [archive])
  5.  Musée de Brooklyn – Perséphone [archive]

 

In ancient Greek religion and mythologyDemeter(/dɪˈmtər/AtticΔημήτηρ Dēmḗtērpronounced [dɛːmɛ́ːtɛːr]DoricΔαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the harvest and agriculture, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito (Σιτώ), “she of the Grain”,[1] as the giver of food or grain,[2] and Thesmophoros (θεσμόςthesmos: divine order, unwritten law; φόροςphoros: bringer, bearer), “Law-Bringer”, as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society.[3]

Though Demeter is often described simply as the goddess of the harvest, she presided also over the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that predated the Olympian pantheon. In the Linear BMycenean Greek tablets of c. 1400–1200 BC found at Pylos, the “two queens and the king” may be related with Demeter, Persephone and Poseidon.[4][5]

Her Roman equivalent is Ceres.[6

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%A9m%C3%A9ter

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

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Giacobbe Giusti, Etruscan Chandelier

Giacobbe Giusti, Etruscan Chandelier

Giacobbe Giusti, Etruscan Chandelier

MAEC: Museum of the Etruscan Academy and of the City of Cortona

Etruscan Chandelier Room, one of the most famous objects preserved in this museum and the real symbol of MAEC, a bronze masterpiece with a rich decoration, dated to the half of the 5th century B.C. and up to now unique in its kind.

http://www.cortonaweb.net/en/museums/cortona-maec-museum-02

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Basilica di aquilieia, esterno 01.JPG

Façade of the church.
Basic information
Location Aquileia, Italy
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Province Udine
Country Italy
Year consecrated 1031
Ecclesiastical or organizational status National monument
Architectural description
Architectural type Church
Architectural style Romanesque

The nave.

Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta (ItalianBasilica Patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta is the principal church in the town of Aquileia, in the Province of Udine and the region of Friuli-Venezia GiuliaItaly.

The original church dated back to the fourth century. The current basilica was built in the eleventh century and rebuilt again in the thirteenth century. It is located on Via Sacra, overlooking the Piazza del Capitolo, along with the bell tower and baptistery.

 

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_di_Santa_Maria_Assunta_(Aquileia)#Mosaici

https://giacobbegiusti9.wordpress.com/2017/10/02/giacobbe-giusti-basilique-patriarcale-daquilee/

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

Basilica di San Vitale, Ravenna: Lunetta di Abramo (mosaico VI sec.)

Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

Mosaico del Coro a San Vitale a Ravenna: Gli angeli e Abramo.

Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

Anonimo, Giustiniano e la sua corte

Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

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Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale

The “Basilica of San Vitale” is a church in Ravenna, Italy, and one of the most important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture in Europe. The Roman Catholic Church has designated the building a “basilica”, the honorific title bestowed on church buildings of exceptional historic and ecclesial importance, although of course it is not of architectural basilica form. It is one of eight Ravenna structures inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

History

The church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius in 526, when Ravenna was under the rule of the Ostrogoths and completed by the 27th Bishop of Ravenna, Maximian, in 547 preceding the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.

The construction of the church was sponsored by Julius Argentarius, a Roman banker and architect, of whom very little is known, except that he also sponsored the construction of the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe at around the same time.[1] (A donor portrait of Julius Argentarius may appear among the courtiers on the Justinian mosaic.) The final cost amounted to 26,000 solidi (gold pieces).[2]

The central vault used a western technique of hollow tubes inserted into each other, rather than bricks. The ambulatory and gallery were vaulted only later in the Middle Ages.[3]

The Baroque fresco on the dome was made between 1778 and 1782 by S. Barozzi, U. Gandolfi and E. Guarana.[4]

Architecture

Ground plan of the building
Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale
Giacobbe Giusti, mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale
Mosaics of Justinianus I and Theodora.

The church has an octagonal plan. The building combines Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers; with Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, narrow bricks, and an early example of flying buttresses. The church is most famous for its wealth of Byzantine mosaics, the largest and best preserved outside of Constantinople. The church is of extreme importance in Byzantine art, as it is the only major church from the period of the Emperor Justinian I to survive virtually intact to the present day. Furthermore, it is thought to reflect the design of the Byzantine Imperial Palace Audience Chamber, of which nothing at all survives. The belltower has four bells, the tenor one dates to the 16th century. According to legends, the church was erected on the site of the martyrdom of Saint Vitalis.[5] However, there is some confusion as to whether this is the Saint Vitalis of Milan, or the Saint Vitale whose body was discovered together with that of Saint Agricola, by Saint Ambrose in Bologna in 393.

Mosaic art

The presbytery.

Triumphal arch mosaics of Jesus Christ and the Apostles.

The interior of San Vitale

The central section is surrounded by two superposed ambulatories. The upper one, the matrimoneum, was reserved for married women. A series of mosaics in the lunettes above the triforia depict sacrifices from the Old Testament:[6] the story of Abraham and Melchizedek, and the Sacrifice of Isaac; the story of Moses and the Burning Bush, Jeremiah and Isaiah, representatives of the twelve tribes of Israel, and the story of Abel and Cain. A pair of angels, holding a medallion with a cross, crowns each lunette. On the side walls the corners, next to the mullioned windows, have mosaics of the Four Evangelists, under their symbols (angel, lion, ox and eagle), and dressed in white. Especially the portrayal of the lion is remarkable in its ferocity.

The cross-ribbed vault in the presbytery is richly ornamented with mosaic festoons of leaves, fruit and flowers, converging on a crown encircling the Lamb of God. The crown is supported by four angels, and every surface is covered with a profusion of flowers, stars, birds and animals, including many peacocks. Above the arch, on both sides, two angels hold a disc and beside them a representation of the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. They symbolize the human race (Jerusalem representing the Jews, and Bethlehem the Gentiles).

All these mosaics are executed in the Hellenistic-Roman tradition: lively and imaginative, with rich colors and a certain perspective, and with a vivid depiction of the landscape, plants and birds. They were finished when Ravenna was still under Gothic rule. The apse is flanked by two chapels, the prothesis and the diaconicon, typical for Byzantine architecture.

Inside, the intrados of the great triumphal arch is decorated with fifteen mosaic medallions, depicting Jesus Christ, the twelve Apostles and Saint Gervasius and Saint Protasius, the sons of Saint Vitale. The theophany was begun in 525 under bishop Ecclesius. It has a great gold fascia with twining flowers, birds, and horns of plenty. Jesus Christ appears, seated on a blue globe in the summit of the vault, robed in purple, with his right hand offering the martyr’s crown to Saint Vitale. On the left, Bishop Ecclesius offers a model of the church.

Justinian and Theodora panels

Apse mosaic.
The mosaic of Emperor Justinian and his retinue.

Empress Theodora and attendants.

Ceiling mosaic above the presbytery.

At the foot of the apse side walls are two famous mosaic panels, executed in 547. On the right is a mosaic depicting the East Roman Emperor Justinian I, clad in Tyrian purple with a golden halo, standing next to court officials, Bishop Maximian, palatinae guards and deacons. The halo around his head gives him the same aspect as Christ in the dome of the apse. Justinian himself stands in the middle, with soldiers on his right and clergy on his left, emphasizing that Justinian is the leader of both church and state of his empire.

The gold background of the mosaic shows that Justinian and his entourage are inside the church. The figures are placed in a V shape; Justinian is placed in the front and in the middle to show his importance with Bishop Maximian on his left and lesser individuals being placed behind them. This placement can be seen through the overlapping feet of the individuals present in the mosaic.[7]

Another panel shows Empress Theodora solemn and formal, with golden halo, crown and jewels, and a train of court ladies. She is almost depicted as a goddess. As opposed to the V formation of the figures in the Justinian mosaic, the mosaic with Empress Theodora shows the figures moving from left to right into the church. Theodora is seen holding the wine.

http://www.ravennamosaici.it/musei/san-vitale/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_San_Vitale

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

 

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

 

Lamb of God

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

The presbytery.

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Mosaic of Theodora

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Apse mosaic.

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Triumphal arch mosaics of Jesus Christ and the Apostles.

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Mosaics of Justinianus I and Theodora.

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

Giacobbe Giusti, Basilica of San Vitale

The “Basilica of San Vitale” is a church in Ravenna, Italy, and one of the most important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture in Europe. The Roman Catholic Church has designated the building a “basilica”, the honorific title bestowed on church buildings of exceptional historic and ecclesial importance, although of course it is not of architectural basilica form. It is one of eight Ravenna structures inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

History

The church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius in 526, when Ravenna was under the rule of the Ostrogoths and completed by the 27th Bishop of Ravenna, Maximian, in 547 preceding the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.

The construction of the church was sponsored by Julius Argentarius, a Roman banker and architect, of whom very little is known, except that he also sponsored the construction of the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare in Classe at around the same time.[1] (A donor portrait of the Julius Argentarius may appear among the courtiers on the Justinian mosaic.) The final cost amounted to 26,000 solidi (gold pieces).[2]

The central vault used a western technique of hollow tubes inserted into each other, rather than bricks. The ambulatory and gallery were vaulted only later in the Middle Ages.[3]

The Baroque fresco on the dome was made between 1778 and 1782 by S. Barozzi, U. Gandolfi and E. Guarana.[4]

Architecture

Ground plan of the building
Mosaics of Justinianus I and Theodora.

The church has an octagonal plan. The building combines Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers; with Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, narrow bricks, and an early example of flying buttresses. The church is most famous for its wealth of Byzantine mosaics, the largest and best preserved outside of Constantinople. The church is of extreme importance in Byzantine art, as it is the only major church from the period of the Emperor Justinian I to survive virtually intact to the present day. Furthermore, it is thought to reflect the design of the Byzantine Imperial Palace Audience Chamber, of which nothing at all survives. The belltower has four bells, the tenor one dates to the 16th century. According to legends, the church was erected on the site of the martyrdom of Saint Vitalis.[5] However, there is some confusion as to whether this is the Saint Vitalis of Milan, or the Saint Vitale whose body was discovered together with that of Saint Agricola, by Saint Ambrose in Bologna in 393.

Mosaic art

The presbytery.
Triumphal arch mosaics of Jesus Christ and the Apostles.

The interior of San Vitale

The central section is surrounded by two superposed ambulatories. The upper one, the matrimoneum, was reserved for married women. A series of mosaics in the lunettes above the triforia depict sacrifices from the Old Testament:[6] the story of Abraham and Melchizedek, and the Sacrifice of Isaac; the story of Moses and the Burning Bush, Jeremiah and Isaiah, representatives of the twelve tribes of Israel, and the story of Abel and Cain. A pair of angels, holding a medallion with a cross, crowns each lunette. On the side walls the corners, next to the mullioned windows, have mosaics of the Four Evangelists, under their symbols (angel, lion, ox and eagle), and dressed in white. Especially the portrayal of the lion is remarkable in its ferocity.

The cross-ribbed vault in the presbytery is richly ornamented with mosaic festoons of leaves, fruit and flowers, converging on a crown encircling the Lamb of God. The crown is supported by four angels, and every surface is covered with a profusion of flowers, stars, birds and animals, including many peacocks. Above the arch, on both sides, two angels hold a disc and beside them a representation of the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. They symbolize the human race (Jerusalem representing the Jews, and Bethlehem the Gentiles).

All these mosaics are executed in the Hellenistic-Roman tradition: lively and imaginative, with rich colors and a certain perspective, and with a vivid depiction of the landscape, plants and birds. They were finished when Ravenna was still under Gothic rule. The apse is flanked by two chapels, the prothesis and the diaconicon, typical for Byzantine architecture.

Inside, the intrados of the great triumphal arch is decorated with fifteen mosaic medallions, depicting Jesus Christ, the twelve Apostles and Saint Gervasius and Saint Protasius, the sons of Saint Vitale. The theophany was begun in 525 under bishop Ecclesius. It has a great gold fascia with twining flowers, birds, and horns of plenty. Jesus Christ appears, seated on a blue globe in the summit of the vault, robed in purple, with his right hand offering the martyr’s crown to Saint Vitale. On the left, Bishop Ecclesius offers a model of the church.

Justinian and Theodora panels

Apse mosaic.
The mosaic of Emperor Justinian and his retinue.

Empress Theodora and attendants.

Ceiling mosaic above the presbytery.

At the foot of the apse side walls are two famous mosaic panels, executed in 547. On the right is a mosaic depicting the East Roman Emperor Justinian I, clad in Tyrian purple with a golden halo, standing next to court officials, Bishop Maximian, palatinae guards and deacons. The halo around his head gives him the same aspect as Christ in the dome of the apse. Justinian himself stands in the middle, with soldiers on his right and clergy on his left, emphasizing that Justinian is the leader of both church and state of his empire.

The gold background of the mosaic shows that Justinian and his entourage are inside the church. The figures are placed in a V shape; Justinian is placed in the front and in the middle to show his importance with Bishop Maximian on his left and lesser individuals being placed behind them. This placement can be seen through the overlapping feet of the individuals present in the mosaic.[7]

Another panel shows Empress Theodora solemn and formal, with golden halo, crown and jewels, and a train of court ladies. She is almost depicted as a goddess. As opposed to the V formation of the figures in the Justinian mosaic, the mosaic with Empress Theodora shows the figures moving from left to right into the church. Theodora is seen holding the wine.

See also

External video
Lamb of God (San Vitale).jpg
Byzantine Art: San Vitale, Ravenna, Smarthistory[8]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_San_Vitale

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Head of a statue of emperor Augustus

Giacobbe Giusti, Head of a statue of emperor Augustus

Giacobbe Giusti, Head of a statue of emperor Augustus

Augustus.JPG

 

The bronze head of Augustus from Meroë on display in the British Museum
Material Bronze
Size 46.2 cm high
Created 27-25 BC
Present location British Museum, London
Identification 1911,0901.1

The Meroë Head, or Head of Augustus from Meroë is a larger-than-life-size bronze head that was found in the ancient Nubian site of Meroë in Sudan. Long admired for its striking appearance and perfect proportions, it is now part of the British Museum‘s collection.[1][2]

Discovery

The head was excavated by the British archaeologistJohn Garstang in December 1910 at Meroë, which had been the capital of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries. The sculpture was found buried beneath a monumental stairway that lead to an altar of victory. This intended insult of burying the statue resulted in the head being well presented[3] after being buried for over 1900 years. The bust was donated to the British Museum by the Sudan Excavation Committee with the support of the National Art Collections Fund in 1911.[4]

Kushite raids

The head had clearly been hacked off a large statue made in honour of the Roman Emperor Augustus. The Greek historian Strabo mentions in his chronicles that numerous towns in Lower Egypt were adorned with statues of Augustus before an invading Kushite army looted many of them in 25 BC. Although the Roman military successfully invaded Kushite territory and reclaimed many statues, they were unable to reach as far south as the Kushite capital itself. The placing of the Emperor’s head below the shrine’s steps was designed to symbolically denigrate the reputation of Augustus in the eyes of the Meroitic aristocracy.[5]

Description

The Meroë Head is larger than life-size and mimics Greek art by portraying Augustus with classical proportions; it was clearly designed to idealise and flatter the Emperor. Made of bronze, the eyes are inset with glass pupils and calcite irises. It is the preservation of the eyes (which are frequently lost in ancient bronze statues) which makes this statue so startlingly realistic. The emperor’s head turns to his right and gazes powerfully into the distance. His hair falls onto his brow in waves that are typical of Augustus’s portraits.[5] The British Museum has several other notable bronze heads of Roman Emperors including an image of Claudius. The heads are thought to have been made locally but based on moulds created in Rome.[5]

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mero%C3%AB_Head

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

Giacobbe Giusti, Oxus Treasure

Giacobbe Giusti, Oxus Treasure

One of a pair of armlets from the Oxus Treasure, which has lost its inlays of precious stones or enamel

Giacobbe Giusti, Oxus Treasure

Oxus chariot model, from the region of Takht-i Kuwad, Tadjikistan, Achaemenid Persian, 5th-4th century BC. British Museum

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Oxus Treasure

Gold statuettes carrying barsoms, with a rider behind

Giacobbe Giusti, Oxus Treasure

The statuette of the naked Youth

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxus_Treasure

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