Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

 

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

 Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

Villa adriana.jpg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location Tivoli, Italy Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates 41°56′31″N 12°46′31″E
Criteria Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii) Edit this on Wikidata
Reference 907
Inscription 1999 (23rd Session)
Hadrian's Villa is located in Italy

Hadrian's Villa
Location of Hadrian’s Villa

Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana in Italian) is a large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy. It is the property of the Republic of Italy, and has been directed and run by the Polo Museale del Lazio since December 2014.

ContentsHistory

The villa was constructed at Tibur (modern-day Tivoli) as a retreat from Rome for Roman Emperor Hadrian during the second and third decades of the 2nd century AD. Hadrian is said to have disliked the palace on the Palatine Hill in Rome, leading to the construction of the retreat. It was traditional that the Roman emperor had constructed a villa as a place to relax from everyday life, previous emperors and Romans with wealth such as Trajan had also constructed a villa. Many villas were also self sustaining with small farms and did not need to import food.

The picturesque landscape around Tibur had made the area a popular choice for villas and rural retreats. It was reputedly popular with people from the Spanish peninsula who were residents in the city of Rome. This may have contributed to Hadrian’s choice of the property – although born in Rome, his parents came from Spain and he may have been familiar with the area during his early life.

There may also have been a connection through his wife Vibia Sabina (83–136/137) who was the niece of the Emperor Trajan. Sabina’s family held large landholdings and it is speculated the Tibur property may have been one of them. A villa from the Republican era formed the basis for Hadrian’s establishment.

During the later years of his reign, Hadrian actually governed the empire from the villa. Hadrian started using the villa as his official residence around AD 128. A large court therefore lived there permanently and large numbers of visitors and bureaucrats would have to have been entertained and temporarily housed on site. The postal service kept it in contact with Rome 29 kilometres (18 mi) away, where the various government departments were located.

It isn’t known if Hadrian’s wife lived at the villa either on a temporary or permanent basis – his relations with her were apparently rather strained or distant, possibly due to his ambiguous sexuality. Hadrian’s parents had died when he was young, and he and his sister were adopted by Trajan. It is possible that Hadrian’s court at the villa was predominately male but it’s likely that his childhood nurse Germana, to whom he had formed a deep attachment, was probably accommodated there (she actually outlived him).

After Hadrian, the villa was occasionally used by his various successors (busts of Antoninus Pius (138–161), Marcus Aurelius (161–180), Lucius Verus (161–169), Septimius Severus and Caracalla have been found on the premises). Zenobia, the deposed queen of Palmyra, possibly lived here in the 270s.

During the decline of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, the villa gradually fell into disuse and was partially ruined as valuable statues and marble were taken away. The facility was used as a warehouse by both sides during the destructive Gothic War (535–554) between the Ostrogoths and Byzantines. Remains of lime kilns have been found, where marble from the complex was burned to extract lime for building material.

In the 16th century, Cardinal Ippolito II d’Este had much of the remaining marble and statues in Hadrian’s Villa removed to decorate his own Villa d’Este located nearby. Since that period excavations have sporadically turned up more fragments and sculptures, some of which have been kept in situ or housed on site in the display buildings.

Structure and architecture

Hadrian’s Villa is a vast area of land with many pools, baths, fountains and classical Greek architecture set in what would have been a mixture of landscaped gardens, wilderness areas and cultivated farmlands.

The buildings are constructed in travertine, brick, limepozzolana, and tufa. The complex contains over 30 buildings, covering an area of at least a square kilometre (250 acres) of which much is still unexcavated.

The site was chosen due to its abundant waters and readily available aqueducts that passed through Rome, including Anio Vetus, Anio Nobus, Aqua Marcia, and Aqua Claudia.[1] The area was known as the location of villas before Hadrian obtained the property – it was, and still is, a picturesque area conveniently close to Rome but seemingly detached and separate.

The villa was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape.

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

The ruins of Hadrian’s Villa in their present state

The villa shows echoes of many different architectural styles, mostly Greek and Egyptian. Hadrian, a very well-traveled emperor, borrowed these designs, such as the caryatids by the Canopus, along with the statues beside them depicting the Egyptian dwarf and fertility god, Bes. A Greek so called “Maritime Theatre”, also known as the Island Enclosure, exhibits classical ionic style, whereas the domes of the main buildings as well as the Corinthian arches of the Canopus and Serapeum show clear Roman architecture. Hadrian’s biography states that areas in the villa were named after places Hadrian saw during his travels. Only a few places mentioned in the biography can be accurately correlated with the present-day ruins.

One of the most striking and best preserved parts of the Villa consists of a pool named Canopus and an artificial grotto named Serapeum. An Egyptian city named Canopus was where a temple named Serapeum was dedicated to the god Serapis. However, the architecture is Greek influenced (typical in Roman architecture of the High and Late Empire) as seen in the Corinthian columns and the copies of famous Greek statues that surround the pool. The pool measured 119 by 18 metres (390 by 59 ft). Each column surrounding the pool was connected to each other with marble.[2] One anecdote involves the Serapeum and its peculiarly-shaped dome. A prominent architect of the day, Apollodorus of Damascus, dismisses Hadrian’s designs, comparing the dome on Serapeum to a “pumpkin”. The full quote is “Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these [architectural] matters.”

Hadrian’s Pecile located inside the Villa was a huge garden surrounded by a swimming pool and an arcade. The pool’s dimensions measure 232 by 97 metres (761 by 318 ft). Originally, the pool was surrounded by four walls with colonnaded interior. These columns helped to support the roof. In the center of the quadriportico was a large rectangular pool. The four walls create a peaceful solitude for Hadrian and guests.

One structure in the villa is the so-called “Maritime Theatre”. It consists of a round portico with a barrel vault supported by pillars. Inside the portico was a ring-shaped pool with a central island. The large circular enclosure 40 metres (130 ft) in diameter has an entrance to the north. Inside the outer wall and surrounding the moat are a ring of unfluted ionic columns. The Maritime Theater includes a lounge, a library, heated baths, three suites with heated floors, washbasin, an art gallery, and a large fountain.[2] During the ancient times, the island was connected to the portico by two wooden drawbridges. On the island sits a small Roman house complete with an atrium, a library, a triclinium, and small baths. The area was probably used by the emperor as a retreat from the busy life at the court.

The villa utilizes numerous architectural styles and innovations. The domes of the steam baths have circular holes on the apex to allow steam to escape. This is reminiscent of the Pantheon, also built by Hadrian. The area has a network of underground tunnels. The tunnels were mostly used to transport servants and goods from one area to another.

In 1998, the remains of what archaeologists claimed to be the monumental tomb of Antinous, or a temple to him, were discovered at the Villa.[3] This, however, has subsequently been challenged in a study noting the lack of any direct evidence for a tomb of Antinous, as well as a previously overlooked patristic source indicating burial in Egypt at Antinopolis, and treating the possibility of a sanctuary of Antinous at Hadrian’s Villa as plausible but unproven.[4]

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

Grand Thermae

In September 2013, a network of tunnels was investigated, buried deep beneath the villa – these were probably service routes for staff so that the idyllic nature of the landscape might remain undisturbed. The site housed several thousand people including staff, visitors, servants and slaves. Although much major activity would have been engaged in during Hadrian’s absence on tours of inspection of the provinces a great many people (and animals) must have been moving about the Tivoli site on a daily basis. The almost constant building activity on top of basic gardening and domestic activities probably led to subterranean routes being resorted to.

The villa itself has been described as an architectural masterpiece. A team of caving specialists has discovered that it is even more impressive than previously thought.[5]

Sculptures and artworks

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

The Warwick Vase. From Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli. 2nd century CE. 18th century reconstruction. The Burrell Collection, Glasgow, UK
Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

Theatrical masks of Tragedy and Comedy in refined mosaic, from the villa (Capitoline Museum, Rome)

Many beautiful artifacts have been unearthed and restored at the Villa, such as marble statues of AntinousHadrian‘s deified lover, accidentally drowned in Egypt, and mosaics from the theatre and baths.[citation needed]

A lifelike mosaic depicted a group of doves around a bowl, with one drinking, seems to be a copy of a work by Sosus of Pergamon as described by Pliny the Elder. It has in turn been widely copied.[6]

Many copies of Greek statues (such as the Wounded Amazon) have been found, and even Egyptian-style interpretations of Roman gods and vice versa. Most of these have been taken to Rome for preservation and restoration, and can be seen at the Musei Capitolini or the Musei Vaticani. However, many were also excavated in the 18th century by antiquities dealers such as Piranesi and Gavin Hamilton to sell to Grand Tourists and antiquarians such as Charles Towneley, and so are in major antiquities collections elsewhere in Europe and North America.

Artworks found in the villa include:

Present-day significance

Hadrian’s Villa is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and important cultural and archaeological site. It is also a major tourist destination along with the nearby Villa d’Este and the town of Tivoli. The Academy of the villa was placed on the 100 Most Endangered Sites 2006 list of the World Monuments Watch because of the rapid deterioration of the ruins.

Giacobbe Giusti, Hadrian’s Villa

The Maritime Theatre

References

External video
Isis-Sothis-Demeter MGEg Inv22804.jpg
 Hadrian’s Villa: A Virtual TourSmarthistory[7]
  1. Jump up^ “The Emperor’s Abode: Hadrian’s Villa”Italia. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  2. Jump up to:a b “View Article: Hadrian’s Villa: A Roman Masterpiece”.
  3. Jump up^ Mari, Zaccaria and Sgalambro, Sergio: The Antinoeion of Hadrian’s Villa: Interpretation and Architectural Reconstruction, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol 3, No 1, Jan 2007.
  4. Jump up^ Renberg, Gil H.: Hadrian and the Oracles of Antinous (SHA,Hadr. 14.7); with an appendix on the so-called Antinoeion at Hadrian’s Villa and Rome’s Monte Pincio Obelisk, Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, Vol. 55 (2010) [2011], 159-198.
  5. Jump up^ “Deep inside tunnels revealed under Hadrian’s Roman villa”BBC News.
  6. Jump up^ Drabble, Margaret (2009-09-16). The Pattern in the Carpet: A Personal History with Jigsaws. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-547-24144-9. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
  7. Jump up^ “Hadrian’s Villa: A Virtual Tour”Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved April 30, 2013.

Further reading

  • A. Betori, Z. Mari, ‘Villa Adriana, edificio circolare noto come Sepolcro o Tomba: campagna di scavo 2004: breve sintesi dei resultati’, in Journal of Fasti Online, http://www.fastionline.org/docs/2004-14.pdf
  • Hadrien empereur et architecte. La Villa d’Hadrien: tradition et modernite d’un paysage culturel. Actes du Colloque international organise par le Centre Culturel du Pantheon (2002. Geneva)
  • Villa Adriana. Paesaggio antico e ambiente moderno: elementi di novita` e ricerche in corso. Atti del Convegno: Roma 23-24 giugnio 2000, ed. A. M. Reggiani (2002. Milan)
  • E. Salza Prina Ricotti, Villa Adriana il sogno di un imperatore (2001)
  • Hadrien: tresor d’une villa imperiale, ed. J. Charles-Gaffiot, H. Lavagne [exhibition catalogue, Paris] (1999. Milan)
  • W. L. MacDonald and J. A. Pinto, Hadrian’s Villa and its legacy (1995)
  • A. Giubilei, ‘Il Conte Fede e la Villa Adriana: storia di una collezione d’arte’, in Atti e Memorie della Società Tiburtina di Storia e d’arte; 68 (1995), p. 81-121
  • J. Raeder, Die Statuarische Ausstattung Der Villa Hadriana Bei Tivoli (1983)
  • R. Lanciani, La Villa Adriana (1906)[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrian%27s_Villa

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

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Giacobbe Giusti, Legio VII Gemina

Giacobbe Giusti, Legio VII Gemina

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Legio VII Gemina

Giacobbe Giusti, Legio VII Gemina

 

 

Legio VII Gemina

 Giacobbe Giusti, Legio VII Gemina

Votivaltar für den Geniusder Legio VII Gemina (Museo de León).[1]

Die Legio VII Gemina war eine Legion der römischen Armee, die im Jahr 68 von Kaiser Galba aufgestellt wurde. Ihre Geschichte ist bis in die Spätantike nachweisbar, vor allem durch inschriftliche Zeugnisse von der iberischen Halbinsel. Ihr Name existiert noch heute im Namen der Stadt León in der Autonomen Gemeinschaft Kastilien-León in Spanien, wo die Legio VII Gemina jahrhundertelang ihr wichtigstes Standlager besaß.

Geschichte der Legion

Weihestein zum „Geburtstag des Adlers“[2]

Aufstellung, Vierkaiserjahr und flavische Zeit

Anlass zur Schaffung einer neuen Legion war die Ausrufung Galbas, zum damaligen Zeitpunkt Statthalter der Provinz Hispania citerior, am 3. April 68 in Carthago Nova zum Kaiser. Schon am 10. Juni des Jahres 68 erhielt sie ihre Feldzeichen (signa) und den Legionsadler (aquila). Das Datum als natalis aquilae (Geburt des Adlers) ist belegt in einer Serie von Inschriften aus Villalís in der Nähe von Astorga. Es handelt sich um Weihinschriften, die anlässlich des Jahrestages gesetzt wurden.[3]Einen Beinamen trug sie zunächst nicht. Tacitus nennt sie wohl aus Unterscheidungsgründen Galbiana[4] oder Hispana,[5] schließlich „erst neulich von Galba ausgehobene 7. Legion“.[6] Möglicherweise erhielt sie von Galba die Nummer VII im Anschluss an die Legio VI Victrix, welche zum Zeitpunkt der Aushebung in der Provinz stand.

Die Legion unterstützte Galba im Bürgerkrieg des Vierkaiserjahres und wurde zu diesem Zweck von Spanien nach Rom entsandt, um später in der pannonischen Stadt Carnuntum die Legio X Gemina abzulösen. Nach Galbas Tod schloss sich die Legion zusammen mit den illyrischen Heeren seinem Nachfolger Otho an, kam jedoch in der entscheidenden Schlacht von Bedriacum nicht mehr zum Einsatz. Vitellius sandte sie nach Pannonien zurück. Unter ihrem LegatusMarcus Antonius Primus schlug sich die Legion auf die Seite Vespasians und marschierte bald wieder nach Italien. Tacitus erwähnt, dass sie in der Schlacht von Cremona sechs Centurionen der ersten Rangklasse verlor.[7] Unklar ist, ob die Legion daraufhin sofort nach Germanien versetzt wurde, oder ob sie nochmals für kurze Zeit nach Carnuntum oder gar nach Spanien zurückkehrte. Hinweise auf die Legion stammen aus der frühen Regierungszeit des Vespasian vordringlich vom Oberrhein, wo beispielsweise die Aktionen des Pinarius Clemens zu dieser Zeit durchgeführt wurden.[8] Einige Ziegelstempel weisen die Legion in der Gegend um Mainz nach.[9]

Im Jahr 70 wurde die Legio VII von Vespasian unter Einziehung von Soldaten der Legio I Germanica neu formiert und erhielt dadurch den Beinamen Legio VII Gemina (lat. gemina „Zwilling“). Um das Jahr 74 war die Einheit mit dem zusätzlichen Beinamen Felix (die „Glückliche“) wieder in Spanien,[10] wo sie bis zum 3. Jahrhundert im Legionslager Legio (León) bezeugt ist. Die anderen „spanischen“ Legionen (I AdiutrixVI Victrix und X Gemina) waren zu Beginn des Jahrzehnts nach Germanien verlegt worden um den Bataveraufstand zu beenden, so dass die VII Gemina neben wenigen Auxiliartruppen die Garnison der iberischen Halbinsel darstellte. Teile der Legion wurden an den Pässen nach Asturia Transmontana und in Asturica Augusta (Astorga) stationiert. Im Jahr 79 n. Chr. ist die Legio erstmals auf einer sicher datierbaren Inschrift belegt, die als Weihinschrift von 10 callaecischen Gemeinden dem Kaiser und seinen Söhnen gewidmet wurde.[11]

Hohe Kaiserzeit

Der spätere Kaiser Trajan war in den späten 80er Jahren des 1. Jahrhunderts Kommandant der Legio VII. Während des Aufstandes des Lucius Antonius Saturninus marschierte sie zum Schutze Italiens zunächst nach Aquileia, kam aber nicht mehr zum Einsatz.[12] Unter Hadrian (117-138) wurde eine je 1.000 Mann starke Vexillation der Legio VII GeminaLegio VIII Augusta und der Legio XXII Primigeniazum Bau des Hadrianswalls nach Britannien verlegt.[13]

Die Legion blieb während der mittleren Kaiserzeit fest in León stationiert, doch waren Detachements auch an zahlreichen anderen Orten, wie z. B. EmpúriesTrêsminas und Asturica Augusta (Astorga) in der Hispania citerior und Lago das Covas in Lusitania belegt. Vereinzelte Inschriften- oder Ziegelstempelfunde aus Nordafrika und Dakien könnten eine Abordnung von Vexillationen zu auswärtigen Kriegen belegen.[14] Im sonst ruhigen Hispania wurde die Legion in den Jahren 171–172/173 unter ihrem Legaten Publius Cornelius Anullinus eingesetzt um einen Maureneinfall an der Südküste zu bekämpfen.

Ziegelstempel der L(egio) VII G(emina) GORD(iana) P(ia) F(elix)[15]

Clodius Albinus wurde 195/196 zum Gegenkaiser im Westen ausgerufen. Unterstützung fand er bei den britannischen Legionen und zunächst auch bei der Legio VII Gemina. Die VII Gemina wechselte dann auf die Seite von Septimius Severus oder verhielt sich zumindest passiv.[16] Der Bürgerkrieg endete im Februar 197 mit dem Sieg des Septimius Severus bei Lugdunum (Lyon). Von 197 bis 199 war Tiberius Claudius Candiduslegatus Augustorum pro praetore provinciae Hispaniae citerioris(Statthalter der Provinz Hispania Citerior) und ging mit der Legio VII Gemina „zu Lande und zu Wasser“ (terra marique)[17] gegen den zum öffentlichen Feind erklärten Lucius Novius Rufus, Statthalter der Tarraconensis, vor, der ein Anhänger des Clodius Albinus war. Dafür erhielt die Legio VII Gemina erhielt den Beinamen pia bzw.pia felix. Von 202 bis wohl 205 war Quintus Hedius Lollianus Plautius Avitus Legat der Legion. Eine Inschrift[18] des zum Statthalter beförderten Quintus Hedius Lollianus Plautius Avitus aus den Jahren 208–211, nennt die Legion erstmals P(ia) F(elix).[19] Die Beinamen sind auch durch Ziegelstempel belegt.

Nochmals unter einem Kaiser des severischen Kaiserhauses, Severus Alexander (222–235), könnte die Legion zu einem auswärtigen Krieg zumindest teilweise abkommandiert worden sein. Ein in Aquae Mattiacorum (Wiesbaden) gefundener Altar eines Centurio der Legio VII Gemina Alexandriana kann in Verbindung mit dem geplanten Germanenkrieg des Severus Alexander gesehen werden, zu dem Einheiten und Vexillationen aus dem gesamten Reich zusammengezogen wurden.[20] Von Kaiser Gordian III. (238–244) erhielt die Legion den Beinamen Gordiana.[15] Kriegerische Aktivitäten des 3. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. liegen von der iberischen Halbinsel nur im Frankeneinfall von 260 n. Chr. vor. Die Legion spielte politisch nur noch eine untergeordnete Rolle, da die sogenannten Soldatenkaiservon den großen zusammenhängenden Verbänden des Rheins, der Donau und des Orients ausgerufen wurden.

Spätantike

Die Reformen Diokletians (284–305) und Konstantin des Großen(306–337) führten zur Ausgliederung und Verselbständigung mehrerer Vexillation. Im Laufe des 4. Jahrhunderts verminderte sich die Truppenstärke auf der iberischen Halbinsel auf etwa 2.000 bis 3.000 Legionäre.[21]

Ein Teil der Legion wurde als Septimani Gemina im Laufe des 4. Jahrhunderts in den Osten des Reiches verlegt und dienten als Comitatenses unter dem Magister Militum per Orientem.[22] Im frühen 5. Jahrhundert war die Legio septima gemina noch immer in Legio(León) stationiert.[23] Die verkleinerte Legion gehörte zur niedrigsten Heeresgattung des spätrömischen Heeres, den sogenannten Limitanei(Grenzheer) und unterstand dem magister peditum des Westreiches. Die Septimani dienten als Pseudocomitatenses unter dem Magister Peditum Praesentalis,[24] der auch den Oberbefehl über die zu Comitatenses (Feldheer) aufgestiegenen Septimani seniores und Septimani iuniores[24] hatte. Die Septimani seniores waren in Hispaniastationiert, wohingegen die Septimani iuniores auf Standorte in Italien, Gallien[25] und Mauretania Tingitana aufgeteilt waren. Die Septimani seniores und Septimani iuniores unterstanden dem Magister Equitum Galliarum.[26]

Giacobbe Giusti, Legio VII Gemina

Legionslager

Spätantike Stadtbefestigung von León

Das Lager, welches sich in der heutigen Altstadt von León befand, maß 570 × 350 m und besaß damit eine Innenfläche von etwas weniger als 20 ha. Damit befindet es sich von der Größe her in Gesellschaft mit dem großen Lager von Haltern (augusteisch, 20 ha) oder dem Legionslager von Straßburg. Es nimmt eine leichte Anhöhe über dem Zusammenfluss des Río Torío und des Río Bernesga ein. Das Lager selbst bildet mit Ausnahme der Südostecke ein gleichmäßiges, fast nach Norden ausgerichtetes Rechteck.

Das Lager war während der frühen Kaiserzeit von einer 1,80 m starken Mauer umgeben. In spätantiker Zeit, als viele Städte ihre Stadtmauern erneuerten oder neu bauten, erhielt auch León eine der mächtigsten Festungsanlagen der iberischen Halbinsel. Vor die alte Mauer, die an vielen Stellen noch nachzuweisen ist, wurde eine neue, 7 m breite Mauer gesetzt. Deren Türme, von denen noch 48 nachweisbar sind, springen ca. 5,80 m aus der Mauer hervor. Die Mauer selbst besteht im unteren Teil und an den Türmen aus wiederverwendeten Quadern, sonst aus Bruchsteinen und opus caementitium. Ihre antike Höhe ist schwer zu ergänzen, da die Mauer im Mittelalter mehrmals umgebaut wurde und der antike Mauerabschluss heute nicht mehr zu ermitteln ist. Es handelt sich um einen der größten Festungsbauten dieser Zeit auf der Halbinsel.

Von der Innenbebauung ist durch die durchgängige Besiedlung des Areals wenig bekannt. Unter der Kathedrale von León wurden 1884 Mauerreste und ein Mosaik mit Fisch- und Algendarstellungen entdeckt. 1888 fand man unter den Treppen am Hauptportal der Kathedrale die Reste dreier Hypokaustanlagen, die durch 1,20 m breite Mauern voneinander getrennt waren. Der Befund könnte für eine Thermenanlage sprechen, was aber innerhalb des Lagerareals eher ungewöhnlich erscheint.[27]

Epigraphische Quellen

Inschrift bei der Höhle Cova de l’Aigua bei Denia[28]

153 Inschriften einfacher Soldaten einschließlich von Fundorten außerhalb der iberischen Halbinsel, sind bekannt, die sich meist durch die ausdrückliche Erwähnung der VII. Legion identifizieren lassen.[29] Hinzu kommen 43 Centurionen, 22 Tribunen des ritterlichen Standes, 8 tribuni laticlavii, sowie 15 Legionslegaten. Hinzu gerechnet werden muss wohl weiterhin die große Zahl der Inschriften, welche Soldaten nennt, die zum Stab des Statthalters abkommandiert wurden, sogenannte principales, sowohl in Tarraco, als auch in Emerita Augusta.

In Tarraco sind die Militärinschriften am häufigsten, weitere wichtige Fundorte sind neben Mérida und León besonders AsturicaVillalísRosinos de Vidriales und Trêsminas. Die letztgenannten Orte dürften in Verbindung mit dem Erzabbau im Nordwesten Spaniens und Nordportugals stehen, dessen Organisation eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Legion in Friedenszeiten war.[30] Ein weiteres Beispiel für die weiträumige Stationierung stammt aus dem Bürgerkriegsjahr 238 als eine Vexillation der Legio VII Gemina Pia Felix Maximiniana unter dem princeps vexillationis Caius Iulius Urbanus bei Dianium (Dénia) ihr Lager hatte um diesen Abschnitt der spanischen Ostküste zu sichern.[28]

Literatur

  • Legio VII Gemina. Internationales Kolloquium 16- 21 Sept. 1968 (León 1970).
  • Yann Le Bohec: Die römische Armee. Steiner, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-515-06300-5.
  • Patrick Le Roux: L‘ armee romaine et l‘ organisation des provinces iberiques d‘ Auguste a l‘ invasion de 409. De Boccard, Paris 1982 (Publications du Centre Pierre Paris 8; Collection de la Maison des Pays Ibériques 9)
  • Emil RitterlingLegio (VII Gemina). In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE). Band XII,2, Stuttgart 1925, Sp. 1629–1642.
  • Juan José Palao Vicente: Legio VII Gemina (Pia) Felix. Estudio de una legión Romana, Universidad de Salamanca, 2006, ISBN 978-84-7800-546-8

 Legio VII Gemina – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

Einzelnachweise

  1. Hochspringen CIL 02, 05083.
  2. Hochspringen CIL 02, 2552.
  3. Hochspringen Le Roux 1982 S. 242–244; CIL 02, 02552CIL 02, 2553CIL 02, 2556.
  4. Hochspringen Tacitus, Historien II.86 (septima Galbiana).
  5. Hochspringen Tacitus, Historien I.6 (inducta Legione Hispana).
  6. Hochspringen Tacitus, Historien III, 22 (septima legio, nuper a Galba conscripta).
  7. Hochspringen Tacitus, Historien III, 22.
  8. Hochspringen Ritterling, RE 1632
  9. Hochspringen Generaldirektion Kulturelles Erbe Rheinland-Pfalz, Direktion Landesarchäologie: Forschungsprojekt Römische Baukeramik und Ziegelstempel
  10. Hochspringen Ritterling, RE 1601.
  11. Hochspringen CIL 02, 02477.
  12. Hochspringen PliniusPanegyricus Plinii Secundi Traiano Augusto XIV, 2- 3.
  13. Hochspringen Sheppard Sunderland Frere: Britannia: a history of Roman Britain, 3rd ed., extensively rev. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London/New York 1987, ISBN 0710212151, S. 123.
  14. Hochspringen Le Roux 1982, S. 159–160.
  15. ↑ Hochspringen nach:a b CIL 2, 2667
  16. Hochspringen Anthony R. BirleySeptimius Severus, the African Emperor, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 978-0-415-16591-4, S. 125.
  17. Hochspringen CIL 2, 4114
  18. Hochspringen CIL 02, 04121
  19. Hochspringen CIL 02, 04121.
  20. Hochspringen CIL 13, 07564.
  21. Hochspringen Karen Eva Carr: Vandals to Visigoths: rural settlement patterns in early Medieval Spain, University of Michigan Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-472-10891-6, S. 165.
  22. ↑ Hochspringen nach:a b ND Or. VII.
  23. Hochspringen ND Occ. XLII (in provincia Callaecia praefectus legionis septimae geminae, Legione)
  24. ↑ Hochspringen nach:a b c Notitia Dignitatum Occ. V.
  25. Hochspringen Die „gallischen“ Septimani iuniores könnten auch aus der Legio VII Claudia hervorgegangen sein. Luke Ueda-Sarson:Comes Hispenias
  26. Hochspringen ND Occ. VII.
  27. Hochspringen Zum Legionslager siehe: Walter Trillmich und Annette Nünnerich-Asmus (Hrsg.): Hispania Antiqua – Denkmäler der Römerzeit. von Zabern, Mainz 1993, ISBN 3-8053-1547-3, bes. S. 224–226 und 421; Antonio García y Bellido: Estudios sobre la legio VII Gemina y su campamento en León. In: Legio VII Gemina. Kolloquiumsband León 1970; A. Morillo Cerdán/ V. García Marcos: The Roman camps at Léon (Spain): state of the research and new approaches. In: Ángel Morillo/ Norbert Hanel/ Esperanza Martín (Hrsg.): Limes XX. XX Congresso international de estudios sobre la frontera romana. Madrid 2009, ISBN 978-84-00-08854-5, S. 389–406.
  28. ↑ Hochspringen nach:a b CIL 2, 3588HD004805
  29. Hochspringen Zahlen nach Le Roux 1982
  30. Hochspringen Alfred Michael Hirt: Imperial Mines and Quarries in the Roman World: Organizational Aspects 27 BC-AD 235 (Oxford Classical Monographs), Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010, ISBN 978-019957287-8, S. 76 und 120–121.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legio_VII_Gemina

www,giacobbegiusti,com

 

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Vestibolo Di Polifemo room

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

 

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)

Giacobbe Giusti, Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali)
Villa romana di Piazza Armerina - Sicilia - tigre.JPG

mosaic from the Big Game Hunt
Villa Romana del Casale is located in Italy

Villa Romana del Casale
Shown within Italy
Location Piazza ArmerinaProvince of EnnaSicilyItaly
Type Roman villa
Area 8.92 ha (22.0 acres)
History
Founded First quarter of the 4th century AD
Abandoned 12th century AD
Periods Late Antiquity to High Middle Ages
Cultures Roman
Site notes
Archaeologists Paolo Orsi, Giuseppe Cultrera, Gino Vinicio GentiliAndrea Carandini
Ownership Public
Website www.villaromanadelcasale.it
Official name Villa Romana del Casale
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii
Designated 1997 (21st session)
Reference no. 832
Region Europe and North America

The Villa Romana del Casale (SicilianVilla Rumana dû Casali) is a large and elaborate Roman villa or palace located about 3 km from the town of Piazza ArmerinaSicily. Excavations have revealed one of the richest, largest and varied collections of Roman mosaics in the world,[1] for which the site has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2] The villa and artwork contained within date to the early 4th century AD.

The over 3000 sq. metres of mosaic and opus sectilepavement are also almost unique in their excellent state of preservation due to the landslide and floods which covered the remains.

Although less well-known, an extraordinary collection of frescoes covered not only the interior rooms but also the exterior walls.

History

Plan of the villa

The visible remains of the villa were constructed in the first quarter of the 4th century AD on the remains of an older villa rustica, which are the pars dominica, or master’s residence, of a large latifundium or agricultural estate.[3]

Three successive construction phases have been identified; the first phase involved the quadrangular peristyle and the facing rooms. The private bath complex was then added on a north-west axis. In a third phase the villa took on a public character: the baths were given a new entrance and a large latrine, and a grand monumental entrance was built, off-axis to the peristyle but aligned with the new baths entrance and in a formal arrangement with the elliptical (or ovoid) arcade and the grand tri-apsidal hall. This hall was used for entertainment and relaxation for special guests and replaced the two state halls of the peristyle (the “hall of the small hunt” and the “diaeta of Orpheus”). The basilica was expanded and decorated with beautiful and exotic marbles.

The complex remained inhabited for at least 150 years and a village grew around it, named Platia(derived from the word palatium (palace).

Peristyle

In the 5th and 6th centuries, the villa was fortified for defensive purposes by thickening the perimeter walls and by closing of the arcades of the aqueduct to the baths. The villa was damaged and perhaps destroyed during the domination of the Vandalsand the Visigoths. The outbuildings remained in use, at least in part, during the Byzantine and Arab periods. The settlement was destroyed in 1160-1 during the reign of William I. The site was abandoned in the 12th century AD after a landslide covered the villa. Survivors moved to the current location of Piazza Armerina.

The villa was almost entirely forgotten, although some of the tallest parts of the remains were always above ground. The area was cultivated for crops. Early in the 19th century, pieces of mosaics and some columns were found. The first official archaeological excavations were carried out later in that century.[4]

The first professional excavations were made by Paolo Orsi in 1929, followed by the work of Giuseppe Cultrera in 1935-39. Major excavations took place in the period 1950-60 led by Gino Vinicio Gentili, after which a cover was built over the mosaics. In the 1970s Andrea Carandini carried out excavations at the site and work has continued to the present day by the University of Rome, La Sapienza. In 2004 the large mediaeval settlement of the 10-12th centuries was found. Since then further sumptuous rooms of the villa have also been revealed.

The latifundium and the villa

Ambulatory of the Big Game Hunt

In late antiquity the Romans partitioned most of the Sicilian hinterland into huge agricultural estates called “latifundia”. The villa’s latifundium is cited in the Itinerarium Antonini and is known as the Filosofiana. The villa’s pars rustica, or agricultural section, has been discovered to the west of the entrance area, as shown by a room divided in three parts by pillars for storage of agricultural products. The size of the villa and the amount and quality of its artwork indicate that it was the pars dominica of such a latifundium.

The owner’s identity has long been discussed and many different hypotheses have been formulated. The owner was probably a member of senatorial class if not of the imperial family itself, i.e. the absolute upper class of the Roman Empire. The most probable owner is of the Constantinian period, Lucius Aradius Valerius Proculus, governor of Sicily between 327 and 331 and consul in 340. The games he organised in Rome in 320 as praetor were so glorious that their fame lasted for a long time, and perhaps the depictions on some mosaics (the “Great Hunt” in corridor 25 and the “Games of the circus” in the baths) recall this event.

The villa was so large as to include multiple reception and state rooms which reflects the need to satisfy a number of different functions and to include spaces for the management of the estate as well as of the villa. This transformed the villa into a city in miniature. The villa would likely have been the permanent or semi-permanent residence of the owner; it would have been where the owner, in his role as patron, received his local clients.

The villa was a single-story building, centred on the peristyle, around which almost all the main public and private rooms were organised. The monumental entrance is via the atrium from the west. Thermal baths are located to the northwest; service rooms and probably guest rooms to the north; private apartments and a huge basilica to the east; and rooms of unknown purpose to the south. Somewhat detached, and appearing almost as an afterthought, is the separate area to the south containing the elliptical peristyle, service rooms, and a huge triclinium (formal dining room).

Palaestra – Two apses room

The overall plan of the villa was dictated by several factors: older constructions on the site, the slight slope on which it was built, and the path of the sun and prevailing winds. The higher ground to the east is occupied by the Great Basilica, the private apartments, and the Corridor of the Great Hunt; the middle ground by the Peristyle, guest rooms, the entrance area, the Elliptical Peristyle, and the triclinium; while the lower ground to the west is dedicated to the thermal baths.

The whole complex is somewhat unusual, as it is organised along three major axes; the primary axis is the (slightly bent) line that passes from the atrium, tablinum, peristyle and the great basilica (coinciding with the path visitors would follow). The thermal baths and the elliptical peristyle with the triclinium are centred on separate axes.

Little is known about the earlier villa, but it appears to have been a large country residence probably built around the beginning of the second century.

Recent excavations have found a second bath complex close to the storerooms at the entrance dating to the late antique phase and showing rare wall mosaics belonging to a basin or a fountain.

Monumental Entrance

Polygonal court mosaic

Access to the villa was through a three-arched gateway, decorated with fountains and military paintings, and closely resembling a triumphal arch. This gave onto the horseshoe courtyard surrounded by marble columns with Ionic capitals with a square fountain at the centre. On the west side of the courtyard was a latrine, and also separate access was given to the baths and to the rest of the villa.

The peristyle garden and the southern rooms

Diaeta of Orpheus

The elegant peristyle garden is decorated with a three-basin fountain, in the centre of which decoration featuring fish swimming among the waves can be seen. Rooms 33 and 34 were dedicated to service functions and have mosaics with geometric motifs while room 34 also features a mosaic installed above the original floor showing female athletic competitions giving it the name “the room of the palestriti”.

Also on the south side is the so-called diaeta of Orpheus, an apsidal room adorned with a remarkable mosaic featuring Orpheus playing the lyre beneath a tree and taming every kind of animal with his music. This room was probably used as a summer dining room or, considering its floor subject, for the enjoyment of music.

Basilica with marble panels

The Basilica

This grand apsidal hall was an audience hall and the most formal room in the villa, accessed through a grand monumental entrance divided by two columns of pink Egyptian granite. An exceptionally elaborate polychrome opus sectile floor consisting of marbles coming from all over the Mediterranean lies at the entrance and is the richest decoration in the villa; it also covered the walls. This type of marble, rather than mosaic, constituted the material of greatest prestige in the Roman world.

The excavations showed that the apse vault was decorated with glass mosaics.

Opus sectile floor – Basilica

Triclinium and elliptical peristyle

On the south side of the villa is an elliptical peristyle, the Xystus, with a semi-circular nymphaeum on the west side. In the open courtyard were fountains spurting from the mosaic pavement.

The Xystus forms a spectacular introduction to the luxurious tri-apsidal triclinium, the great hall that opens to the east. This contains a magnificent set of mosaics dominated in the centre by the enemies encountered by Hercules during his twelve labours. In the north apse is his apotheosis crowned by Jupiter, while to the east are the Giants with serpentine limbs and in their death throes, having been struck by Hercules’ arrows. In the south apse is the myth of Lycurgus who tried to kill the nymph Ambrosia, but was encircled by grapevines and attacked by a crowd of Maenads.

Mosaics

Bikini girls

The “bikini girls” mosaic, showing girls playing sports. To the left, a girl in a toga offers a crown and victor’s palmfrond to “the winner”

In 1959-60, Gentili excavated a mosaic on the floor of the room dubbed the “Chamber of the Ten Maidens” (Sala delle Dieci Ragazze in Italian). Informally called “the bikini girls”, the maidens appear in a mosaic artwork which scholars named Coronation of the Winner. The young women perform sports including weight-lifting, discus throwing, running and ball-games. A girl in a toga offers a crown and victor’s palm frond to “the winner”.[5]

The Little Hunt

Another well-preserved mosaic shows a hunt, with hunters using dogs and capturing a variety of game.

The Little Hunt mosaic

Gallery

References

Sources

  • Petra C. Baum-vom Felde, Die geometrischen Mosaiken der Villa bei Piazza Armerina, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0940-2
  • Brigit Carnabuci: Sizilien – Kunstreiseführer, DuMont Buchverlag, Köln 1998, ISBN 3-7701-4385-X
  • Luciano Catullo and Gail Mitchell, 2000. The Ancient Roman Villa of Casale at Piazza Armerina: Past and Present
  • R. J. A. Wilson: Piazza Armerina, Granada Verlag: London 1983, ISBN 0-246-11396-0.
  • A. Carandini – A. Ricci – M. de Vos, Filosofiana, The villa of Piazza Armerina. The image of a Roman aristocrat at the time of Constantine, Palermo: 1982.
  • S. Settis, “Per l’interpretazione di Piazza Armerina”, in Mélanges de l’École française de Rome, Antiquité 87, 1975, 2, pp. 873–994.

Further reading

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Romana_del_Casale

https://giacobbegiusti9.wordpress.com/category/villa-romaine-du-casale/

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

 

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Aquileia, Basilica patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta, mosaici del pavimento

Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta

Giacobbe Giusti, THE MOSAICS IN AQUILEIA’S BASILICA

Basilica di aquilieia, esterno 01.JPG

Façade of the church.
Basic information
Location Aquileia, Italy
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Province Udine
Country Italy
Year consecrated 1031
Ecclesiastical or organizational status National monument
Architectural description
Architectural type Church
Architectural style Romanesque

The nave.

Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta (ItalianBasilica Patriarcale di Santa Maria Assunta is the principal church in the town of Aquileia, in the Province of Udine and the region of Friuli-Venezia GiuliaItaly.

The original church dated back to the fourth century. The current basilica was built in the eleventh century and rebuilt again in the thirteenth century. It is located on Via Sacra, overlooking the Piazza del Capitolo, along with the bell tower and baptistery.

 

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_di_Santa_Maria_Assunta_(Aquileia)#Mosaici

https://giacobbegiusti9.wordpress.com/2017/10/02/giacobbe-giusti-basilique-patriarcale-daquilee/

http://www.giacobbegiusti.com

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Gesù risorto e gli apostoli sul lago di Tiberiade, affresco della Basilica di Sant’Angelo in Formis, Capua (Caserta)

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Sant'Angelo in Formis -Il drammatico bacio di Giuda

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Risultati immagini per sant angelo in formis affreschi

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Risultati immagini per sant angelo in formis affreschi

Giacobbe Giusti, Sant’Angelo in Formis, abbey

Façade of the abbey.

Sant’Angelo in Formis is an abbey in the municipality of Capua, southern Italy. The church, dedicated to St Michael Archangel, lies on the western slopes of Monte Tifata.

It was once referred to as ad arcum Dianae (“near the Arch of Diana“), as it lies on the remains of a Roman temple to that goddess.

The church was built in the eleventh century by Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino, who also rebuilt that abbey. At Monte Cassino the decoration was carried out by Byzantine (Greek) artists hired from Constantinople and the decoration of Sant’Angelo displays a mingling of the Byzantine (Eastern) and Latin (Western) traditions.[1] The frescos were painted by Greek artists and by Italian pupils trained in their methods. Examples of the mingling of styles cited in Hall include:

1. The “lunette over the entrance with a half-length figure of St. Michael and above him an orant Virgin in a medallion supported by flying angels, with an inscription in Greek on the lintel at the foot. The treatment is wholly Byzantine except for the Latin motif of a crown on the Virgin’s head”.[2]

2. The evangelists around the enthroned Christ in the Apse are in the form of the four symbolic creatures of the Latin tradition, rather than being shown as figures (often seating at writing desks) in the Greek manner.[2]

3. Subjects from the Old Testament and New Testament line the walls of the nave. The content of individual scenes and the grouping of figures is described by Hall as being “typically Byzantine”, but the whole forms an historical narrative series on the Western model, evidently just as in the basilicas of early Christian Rome.[2]

References

  1. Jump up^ Hall, James. A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art. London, 1983. pp107 & 134
  2. Jump up to:a b c Hall, James (1983). A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art. London: John Murray. p. 134. ISBN 0-7195-3971-4.

External links